هدف از این پژوهش، تأثیر پارادوکس سازماندهی بر مکانیسمهای پایداری در سطح شرکت با تاکید بر نقش میانجی دوسوتوانی یادگیری است که میتواند رهیافتی در جهت توسعه به کارآفرینی باشد. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش، توصیفی - پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری 400 نفر از مدیران شرکت انتقال گاز ایران را شامل میشود، که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 196 نفر بهعنوان نمونه به صورت غیرتصادفی در دسترس انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری دادهها، پرسشنامه بود. روایی (همگرا و واگرا) و پایایی (بار عاملی، ضریب پایایی مرکب، ضریب آلفای کرونباخ) خوب برآورد شد. نتایج حاصل از آزمون فرضیات توسط نرمافزار SMARTPLS، نشان دهنده آن است که پارادوکس سازماندهی بر دوسوتوانی یادگیری تأثیر قوی، مستقیم، و معنیدار دارد و دوسوتوانی یادگیری بر خلاقیت سازمانی، تابآوری سازمانی و انرژی سازمانی به ترتیب تأثیر قوی، مستقیم، و معنیدار، تأثیر متوسط، مستقیم و معنیدار و تأثیر متوسط، مستقیم و معنیدار دارد در نهایت دوسوتوانی یادگیری میتواند نقش میانجیگری خود را ایفا کند. با وجود مدل طراحی شده میتوان انتظار داشت که اداره مذکور به منظور توسعه کارآفرینی در سطح شرکت حتماً به نقش دوسوتوانی یادگیری متوسل شود تا بتواند تاثیرات پارادوکس سازماندهی بر مکانیسمهای پایداری (خلاقیت، تابآوری و انرژی) را بهتر نشان دهد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The effect of organization paradox on stability mechanisms with the mediating role of ambidexterity of learning
The purpose of this research is the effect of organizational paradox on sustainability mechanisms at the company level, emphasizing the mediating role of learning ambidexterity which can be an approach towards the development of entrepreneurship. The current research is applied in terms of purpose, and descriptive-survey in terms of nature and method. The statistical population includes 400 managers of Iran Gas Transmission Company, 196 of whom were selected non-randomly as a sample using Cochran's formula. The data collection tool was a questionnaire. Validity (convergent and divergent) and reliability (factor loading, composite reliability coefficient, Cronbach's alpha coefficient) were estimated as good. The results of hypothesis tested by SMART-PLS software show that the organizational paradox has a strong, direct, and significant effect on the Learning ambidexterity; and the Learning ambidexterity has, respectively, a strong, direct, and significant effect on organizational creativity; a medium, direct, and significant effect on organizational resilience; and a medium, direct, and significant effect on organizational energy. Finally, the Learning ambidexterity can play its mediating role. In spite of the designed model, it can be expected that the aforementioned department will definitely resort to learning ambidexterity role in order to develop entrepreneurship at the company level to better show the effects of the paradox of organization on sustainability mechanisms (creativity, resilience and energy).
This study has tried to show the studied company in an efficient way in the direction of development to more operational entrepreneurship in Iran as a country whose economy is developing, by providing a detailed view of the said mechanisms. In other words; since the Iranian Gas Transmission Company, as the largest subsidiary of the National Iranian Gas Company, has been able to allocate more than 20% of the working manpower (about 11 thousand people) in the gas industry with a background more than half a century, and despite the serious task of managing, preserving, maintaining and exploiting 70% of the physical assets of this huge industry, which is his responsibility; this company is operating with the aim of becoming a leading company in the world in the horizon of 2025. However, this company is not immune from continuous changes and turbulent environment, and the intensification of economic-political sanctions and the unclear prospects of negotiations in recent years have not only faced this company with challenges in the field of achieving its big goals, but have also impeded its development of entrepreneurship. Also, due to the operational nature of the company, the employees of this company must have a high level of creativity, resilience and organizational energy in order to overcome the problems faced by the company's entrepreneurial development. However, as it was said, focusing on one of the poles of organizational duality, either exploitation activities or exploratory activities, has reduced the organization's ability to deal with sudden changes and events, while the recent crisis of the Covid-19 pandemic, and the importance of organizational ability in dealing with these changes, has highlighted the three mechanisms of "creativity, resilience and organizational energy". Since achieving a balance between exploratory and exploitative activities also requires different organizational characteristics, the paradox of organizing has been identified as a solution to the above conditions. But the failure of common types of organizational plans to simultaneously management of paradoxical activities has led to the need for more research in this field. Therefore, due to the lack of research evidence, this research seeks to answer this question: What effect will the paradox of organization have on sustainability mechanisms (organizational creativity, organizational energy, and organizational resilience) with emphasis on the mediating role of ambidextrous learning in the direction of entrepreneurship development?
Paradoxes are paradoxical, but there are still "simultaneously related elements that persist over time". Paradox can be seen as a stable conflict between interdependent elements or structures. Paradox theory represents tensions that exist simultaneously and persist over time, and that they present competing demands simultaneously that require ongoing responses rather than one-off decisions" (Schad & Bansal, 2018). Paradox at the organizational level includes cooperation and competition between alliances and network forms resulting from cooperation with competitors, in which exploration and exploitation cause continuous and contradictory demands in companies. In this context, it is suggested that companies should "participate; in exploitation to ensure the company's current viability, and in exploration to ensure its future viability". Past studies have shown that to ensure long-term survival, companies need continuous efforts to address multiple competitive demands (O'Reilly & Tushman, 2013). Organizational structure can play an important role in dealing with conflicting demands. According to Rivkin & Siggelkow (2006), organizational structure is simply "a set of methods in which work is divided into distinct tasks and then coordinated". Organizational structure is the way of mobilizing and using organizational resources in a wide range of activities and competitive demands (Siggelkow & Levinthal, 2003). Contingency theory is used to explain the conditions that lead to the adoption of centralized and decentralized approaches.
This research is "applicative" in terms of its purpose and "descriptive-correlation with a survey" in terms of the way of data collection. The statistical population (400 people) was managers of Iran Gas Transmission Company, 196 people of whom were selected by simple non-random method for the year 1401. The 10-question organizational paradox questionnaire of Lee & Choi (2003), the 6-question organizational creativity questionnaire of Lee & Choi, (2003) the 6-question resilience questionnaire of Somers (2009), the 14-question organizational energy questionnaire of Cole et al. (2005), and the 10-question ambidextrous learning questionnaire of Atuahene-Gima, K., Murray, (2007) were used as a data collection tool.
In order to investigate the hypotheses of the research, partial least squares structural equation modeling was used with SMART-PLS software. The results related to the first hypothesis showed that the paradox of organizing has an effect on the ambidexterity of learning. The results related to the second hypothesis showed that the ambidexterity of learning has an effect on organizational creativity. The results related to the third hypothesis showed that the ambidexterity of learning has an effect on organizational resilience. The results related to the fourth hypothesis showed that the ambidexterity of learning has an effect on organizational energy. The results of the fifth, sixth and seventh hypothesis also stated that the ambidexterity of learning has a mediating role in the influence of the organizational paradox on the sustainability mechanisms at the company level (organizational creativity, organizational resilience, and organizational energy).
Conclusion and Discussion
As it was said, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of the paradox of organization on sustainability mechanisms with regard to the mediating role of duality of learning in the direction of entrepreneurship development. This research is in agreement with Pertusa-Ortega & Molina-Azorín (2018), Felin et al, (2012), Jansen (2005), Al-Atwi et al, (2021), Babazadeh et al, (2020), Kamali and Mirzaei (2019), Ebrahimi (2020), Do et al, (2022), Gayed & Ebrashi (2022), Schudy & Bruch (2010). In the end, considering the results of the structural equation model, it can be said that few studies have been conducted in the field of investigating the relationship between variables; for this reason, investigation and research on such relationships between these variables are important. Because reaching a clear understanding of what elements will help to increase the sustainability mechanisms at the company level (creativity, resilience and energy) in the direction of entrepreneurship development is very important. Therefore, this research created a basic prerequisite for effective and efficient corporate systems at the organizational level so that companies can fulfill their sustainability mechanisms towards the demands and needs of their employees. Finally, the results of this research have been a good starting point for further research both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, creating more knowledge and better predicting the relationship between the measured variables leads to a better understanding of the paradox of organization. In practical applications, additional information about the formation of these variables and their relationship with each other has helped the organization paradox to be able to step to the level of stability mechanisms through the duality of learning in the direction of employee satisfaction.