هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی ابعاد و مؤلفههای بازاریابی مشتریان صنعت گردشگری ایران میباشد. روش پژوهش با توجه به هدف آن، کاربردی و از حیث شیوه اجرا، کیفی، از نوع توصیفی و تحلیل مضمون میباشد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل 10 نفر از خبرگان کارشناسان، پژوهشگران، متخصصین دانشگاهی و آشنا با بازاریابی در صنعت گردشگری همچنین بهمنظور تناسب اعتبار مدل انتخاب و مصاحبه با آنها انجام شد. تجزیهوتحلیل دادهها با استفاده از نرمافزارهای MAXQDA 2018، انجام گرفت. با توجه به تحلیلی که از روش تحلیل مضمون جهت تعیین ابعاد و مؤلفههای بازاریابی مشتریان صنعت گردشگری ایران به اجرا در آمده است، 3 بعد، 8 مؤلفه و 41 شاخص شناسایی و تأیید شده است. ابعاد بازاریابی شامل بعد کیفیت خدمات، بعد سیاست گذاری بازاریابی و بعد تجربیات گردشگری میباشد. همچنین مؤلفههای شامل، رضایت از خدمات گردشگری، امکانات زیر بنایی، هزینههای گردشگری، سیاست گذاریهای کلان، برنامه ریزی و مدیریت، بازخورد گردشگران، فرهنگ گردشگری، تبلیغات و بازاریابی شناسایی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که همه شاخصهای شناسایی شده مربوط به ابعاد و مؤلفههای بازاریابی مشتریان صنعت گردشگری ایران تاثیرگذار است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Identification of Dimensions and Components of Customer Marketing of Iran's Tourism Industry with a Quality Method
The aim of the current research is to identify the dimensions and components of marketing of customers in Iran's tourism industry. According to its purpose, the research method is applicable; and in terms of implementation, it is qualitative, descriptive and thematic analysis. The statistical population of this research includes 10 specialists, researchers, academic experts and familiar with marketing in the tourism industry. Also, they were selected and interviewed in order to approve the validity of the model. Data analysis was done using MAXQDA 2018 software. According to the analysis that has been carried out using thematic analysis method to determine the dimensions and components of the marketing of Iranian tourism industry customers; 3 dimensions, 8 components, and 41 indicators have been identified and confirmed. Marketing dimensions include service quality dimension, marketing policy dimension and tourism experience dimension; and components including satisfaction with tourism services, infrastructure facilities, tourism costs, macro policies, planning and management, tourist feedback, tourism culture, advertising and marketing. The results showed that all the identified indicators related to the dimensions and components of marketing of Iranian tourism industry customers are effective.
Today, tourism is considered one of the most important and effective economic issues and one of the important and prominent communicative, social and cultural factors in the world (Mohammadi & Mirtaghiyan Rudsari, 2019). In the past years, the importance of tourism at the international level, both in terms of the number of tourists and in terms of foreign exchange earnings, has continuously and unprecedentedly been increasing. Service quality has been emphasized as one of the pillars of the competitiveness of service companies in the tourism industry. Therefore, using a method that can be used to measure service quality has always been important (Huong et al, 2017).
As one of the leading industries in the world and one of the fastest economic sectors, tourism industry has a strong driving force in social, cultural and economic fields, and the ability to shape and transform many organizations. Among the factors that can improve the development of this industry, there is the use of tools and effective parameters of marketing. Therefore, the need for research on tourism marketing is raised more and more (Shir Shamsi et al, 2020).Therefore, the researcher asked the main question: what are the dimensions and components of marketing for customers in Iran's tourism industry?
Tourism refers to the set of trips that are made between the origin and the destination with the motives of rest, entertainment, recreation, sports, sightseeing, business, culture or spending leisure time, and in which the tourist does not have employment or permanent residence at the destination. In general, trips that are made with the above motivations and involve at least one night stay at the destination are called tourism trips (Argha, 2016). The issue of motivations in tourism and the choice of travel today is one of the issues that occupy the minds of researchers in the field of tourism, forcing them to try to learn more and more about these motivations and dreams that make travelers spend their time and money in this way (Hoseinzadeh & Heydari, 2018).
Han & Nhung (2022) conducted a study titled "Vietnam tourism satisfaction: comparison with other countries in Southeast Asia". The statistical population was electronic tourists in Vietnam. The results of the research showed that the level of satisfaction with e-tourism in Vietnam was at a higher level than the neighboring countries, and this was due to the improvement of the quality of services provided in this industry.
Moon & An (2022) conducted a research titled "Usage and satisfaction motives and their effect on the attitude and satisfaction of e-tourists: a multi-level approach". The results of the research showed that the optimal use of the electronic tourism system had a positive effect on their satisfaction and attitude.
This research is applicable in terms of purpose, qualitative in terms of data collection, and thematic analysis in terms of research implementation method. The statistical population of the research is 10 specialists, including experts, researchers, academic experts and familiar with marketing in the tourism industry. Also, they were selected and interviewed in order to fit the validity of the selection model, and using the field method and dimensions' semi-structured interview tools, primary components and indicators will be compiled. After analyzing the interviews, a total of 3 dimensions, 8 components and 41 indicators were identified in line with the research objectives.
Data analysis was done using MAXQDA 2018 software. Based on the obtained results and according to the qualitative analysis, a total of 3 dimensions, 8 components and 41 indicators have been identified and confirmed. The dimension of service quality, the dimension of marketing policy, and the dimension of tourism experiences have been identified. The results showed that, according to the interview regarding the indicators that influence the dimensions and components of the marketing of the customers of the tourism industry of Iran, the extracted components related to the dimensions and components of the marketing of customers of the Iranian tourism industry are effective.
The current research was carried out with the aim of identifying the dimensions and components of marketing for the customers of Iran's tourism industry. The results of this research are consistent with the results of Han & Nhung (2022), Moon & An (2022), Cavalcante et al, (2021), Balal (2021), Manavi (2022), and Abkhiz (2021). Sharmin et al, (2021) showed in the research that interaction, trendy trend and electronic word-of-mouth advertising indirectly influence satisfaction through mobile usefulness and ease of use of mobile phone. Also, mobile usefulness and ease of use directly affect satisfaction, and this significantly affects the intention to use these factors for sustainable tourism marketing.
According to the obtained results and the identification of the importance of service quality aspects that include satisfaction with tourism services, infrastructure facilities and tourism costs that have the greatest impact, it is suggested that tourist accommodations and organizations consider such things as the physical environment, tourism destination, tourism costs, tourism accommodation facilities, creation of recreational and sports facilities, e-tourism, security, health and hygiene, etc. to create a better and superior feeling among permanent tourism customers, and try in the field of these facilities to improve the quality of their services to customers. According to the results obtained from the marketing policy dimension, which includes attracting domestic investors in the tourism sector, removing of the obstacles to foreign investment in tourism, large investments in tourism, regulation of the tourism industry, regulation of strategies based on the distribution of attractions, provision of trained manpower, determining the standards of the tourism industry, monitoring the good performance of work, etc., to improve these experiences for tourists as much as possible and help to improve tourism.