پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارائه مدل توسعه صنعت گردشگری با تاکید بر نقش مدیریت رسانه با رویکرد آمیخته انجام شده است. در این پژوهش از رویکرد آمیخته (کیفی-کمی) استفاده شده است. نمونه آماری در بخش کیفی شامل 15 نفر از استادان و متخصصان و صاحبنظران ارتباطات، رسانه و گردشگری و در بخش کمی پژوهش، شامل 200 نفر از مدیران و کارشناسان ارشد گردشگری در مازندران بوده است. در نخستین گام پژوهش، به کدگذاری مصاحبههای تخصصی پژوهش با استفاده از تحلیل کیفی مضمون با نرمافزار MAXQDA v10.R150410 پرداخته شده است. در گام بعدی نتایج حاصل از تحلیل عاملی تاییدی با نرمافزار Smart PLS ارائه گردیده است. سپس مقولههای موجود با روش ساختاری-تفسیری با نرمافزار MicMac سطحبندی شده و الگوی اولیه پژوهش طراحی شده است. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده در این تحقیق تبلیغات، کیفیت خدمات، سیاستگذاری، مشارکت افراد بومی، فرهنگ گردشگری، بهرهبرداری مناسب از محیطزیست، درآمدزایی در مقصد گردشگری و تسهیلات زیربنائی بهعنوان مولفههای اصلی شناسایی شدند که بر صنعت گردشگری تأثیر دارند. نتایج حاصل از بخش کمی تحقیق نشان داد که مدل پیشنهادی از برازش و اعتبار مناسبی جهت تأثیر رسانههای جمعی بر توسعه صنعت گردشگری برخوردار است.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Presenting the tourism industry development model emphasizing the role of media management with a mixed approach
The aim of this research is to present a model for the development of the tourism industry with an emphasis on the role of media management using a mixed approach. A mixed (qualitative-quantitative) approach has been used in this research. The statistical sample in the qualitative part included 15 professors and specialists and experts in communication, media and tourism: and in the quantitative part of the research, it included 200 managers and senior tourism experts in Mazandaran. In the first step of the research, the coding of the specialized research interviews was done using the qualitative analysis of the theme with MAXQDA v10.R150410 software. In the next step, the results of confirmatory factor analysis with Smart PLS software are presented. Then, the existing categories were leveled with the structural-interpretive method with MicMac software and the initial research model was designed. Based on the results obtained in this research, advertising, service quality, policy making, participation of local people, tourism culture, proper use of the environment, income generation in tourism destination and infrastructure facilities were identified as the main components that have an impact on the tourism industry. The results of the quantitative part of the research showed that the proposed model has a good fit and credibility for the impact of mass media on the development of the tourism industry.
Undoubtedly, tourism is one of the most prosperous service industries worldwide. Tourism is vital to the economic success of many countries around the world. Over the past two decades, some countries have been able to achieve very high incomes despite the shortage of natural resources by investing in the tourism industry (Qiu et al., 2020). There are numerous benefits of tourism in host destinations. Tourism increases economic income, creates thousands of jobs, develops a country's infrastructure, and creates a sense of cultural exchange between foreigners and citizens. The number of jobs created by tourism in many different regions is significant. These jobs are not only part of the tourism industry, but may also include the agricultural, communication, health, and educational sectors. Many tourists travel to experience the culture, different traditions, and cuisine of the host destination. This is very profitable for local restaurants, shopping centers, and shops. For instance, in Melbourne, Australia, with a population of about 4 million, approximately 22,000 citizens are employed only in the tourism sector (Fjelldal et al., 2022). With the recognition of the economic importance of tourism, many governments and tourism companies have started extensive advertising campaigns to brand their destinations and attract tourists. As a result, there is now intense competition among tourism organizations (as well as different governments) to introduce domestic tourism destinations and attract as many tourists as possible. Therefore, marketing has essentially become a key component for success in the tourism industry (Yung et al., 2021). Considering these marketing efforts, marketing is essentially a type of messaging to customers (both potential and existing). The important role of the media in introducing tourism destinations and creating a destination brand can be understood (Alsalami & Al-Zaman, 2021). Although the use of media, including radio and television advertising, billboards, and more, has a very long history in the tourism industry, the advent of technology-based media has caused a great transformation in tourism advertising. Information is a vital lifeline for the tourism industry; therefore, effective use of information technology and modern mass media is crucial for competitive advantage and success. As a result, many companies involved in the tourism industry have chosen to use modern media as their most important marketing and customer interaction tool (van Nuenen & Scarles, 2021). Therefore, there is a need for research that focuses on providing a native approach to developing a model for the tourism industry with an emphasis on the role of media management. The main issue of this study is the neglect of the capacity of media as a key tool for successful tourism marketing within the country. In this study, a model for the development of the tourism industry with an emphasis on the role of media management using a mixed approach is presented. This research seeks to find an answer to the question of what components make up a model for developing the tourism industry based on media management.
Tourism is the act and process of spending time away from home in pursuit of leisure, relaxation, and enjoyment while also utilizing commercial services. Thus, tourism is a product of modern social arrangements that began in Western Europe in the 17th century, although it has roots in classical antiquity. Tourism differs from exploration in that tourists follow a "well-established path," utilize established supply systems, and, as befits pleasure-seekers, are generally immune to difficulty, danger, and embarrassment (Rasulov, Madjitova & Islomova, 2022). However, tourism overlaps with other activities, interests, and processes, such as pilgrimage, for example. This has led to the creation of common categories such as "business tourism," "sports tourism," and "medical tourism" (international travel for the purpose of receiving medical care) (Palacios-Florencio, Santos-Roldán, Berbel-Pineda & Castillo-Canalejo, 2021).
In the past few decades, the trend of tourism has grown significantly worldwide, as the concept of travel has changed in people's lives. In the past, traveling was often a cumbersome and sometimes frustrating experience that required constant planning. However, today, thanks to technology and changes in lifestyle, this concept has become an incredibly enjoyable and effortless experience. People travel for business, holidays, leisure, adventure, or even medical treatments. These issues have led to the emergence of a booming tourism industry, with successful countries earning substantial incomes from this sector (Zhu, Airey & Siriphon, 2021).
Tourism marketing is a term used to refer to the commercial field that attracts visitors to a particular location, which can be a state, a city, a specific heritage site or tourist destination, a hotel, or a convention center. The location can be anything that has the potential to attract tourism, as people visit a new place for tourism purposes. Tourism marketing is often associated with marketing strategies in the tourism industry. Nowadays, many countries in the world have a significant role for tourism in increasing their gross domestic product (GDP), making tourism marketing an essential factor. Many places are often tourist hotspots, such as the Taj Mahal in India, and are now the best areas to strengthen tourism marketing. Places that are likely to be the main attraction for tourists are the places where tourism marketing has the most significant impact. Currently, tourism marketing is all about using multiple marketing techniques and strategies to enhance the tourism industry of a particular place (Liu, et.al, 2022).
The present study is aimed at the field of developmental research, and in terms of approach, it falls under exploratory studies. Based on the type of data, this research is categorized as a mixed-methods study (qualitative-quantitative). In the qualitative stage, the sample included 15 professors, experts, and specialists in communication, media, and tourism at universities in Mazandaran. The sample size is determined based on theoretical saturation. Given the research topic and objectives, a semi-structured interview method was used to collect data. In the quantitative stage, the statistical population included managers and senior experts in tourism throughout Mazandaran province (N=412), from which a sample of 200 people was selected. To determine the validity and reliability of the interviews, the retest and inter-coder agreement methods were used. In this research, the content analysis method was used to analyze qualitative data. In the next stage, the results of confirmatory factor analysis are presented. Then, the existing issues are classified using the structural-interpretive method, and the initial model of the research is designed. Finally, the partial least squares method is used for model validation. Qualitative analysis was performed using MAXQDA software, structural-interpretive analysis using MicMac software, and partial least squares method using Smart PLS software.
Given that the retest reliability rate is 85%, which is higher than 60%, the coding reliability is acceptable. Additionally, considering that the intercoder reliability rate is 79%, which is also higher than 60%, the coding reliability is acceptable. Based on the results of the qualitative data analysis; advertising, service quality, policy-making, local community participation, tourism culture, appropriate environmental management, tourism income generation, and infrastructural facilities were identified as the main components that impact the tourism industry. The results of the quantitative section showed that the proposed model has a good fit and validity for the impact of mass media on the development of the tourism industry.
Numerous research studies have been conducted on the components and indicators of media management in the tourism industry, with an emphasis on media management perspectives. However, there are still various concepts and different measures for these perspectives that need to be investigated and standardized to achieve a comprehensive view. Generally, the most important components include advertising, service quality, policy-making, participation of local people, tourism culture, proper environmental management, income generation at the tourist destination, and infrastructure facilities. In conclusion, media has a significant role in creating a platform for the expansion or recession of activities related to this sector, given its capabilities. By careful and controlled planning, media can shape the thoughts and behaviors of a community and expand their desired perspectives. Today, through modern forms and audience-friendly media, they are the largest and most effective tool for producing concepts, social relations, and cultural messages in societies. Radio, television, newspapers, the internet, and modern media are indirect communication tools that have the power to influence, apply taste, and shape mentality. Media and its quantitative and qualitative advances are leading recent movements in all dimensions of life and development of communication. Visualization, needs assessment, persuasion, awareness, effective communication, and the use of new technologies in the field of media have placed many countries among the top tourist destinations in the world. With the development of communication technologies and the formulation of work and safety laws, tourism has reached such a position in the current global conditions that one cannot ignore its countless benefits.